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The Existential State of Being Alone

“God alone leads them, and there is no foreign god with Him” (Deuteronomy 32:12). The literal sense, the peshat, of the first part of this verse teaches that Israel’s fate is not determined by the stars (astrological predictions) but by God alone, as the Talmud reiterates: “There are no predetermined heavenly influences upon Israel” (Shabbat […]